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# Daubechies Class Reference

Daubechies D4 wavelet transform (D4 denotes four coefficients). More...

`#include <daub.h>`

List of all members.

## Public Methods

Daubechies ()
void daubTrans (double *ts, int N)
void invDaubTrans (double *coef, int N)

## Private Methods

void transform (double *a, const int n)
void invTransform (double *a, const int n)

double h0
double h1
double h2
double h3
double g0
double g1
double g2
double g3
double Ih0
double Ih1
double Ih2
double Ih3
double Ig0
double Ig1
double Ig2
double Ig3

## Detailed Description

Daubechies D4 wavelet transform (D4 denotes four coefficients).

I have to confess up front that the comment here does not even come close to describing wavelet algorithms and the Daubechies D4 algorithm in particular. I don't think that it can be described in anything less than a journal article or perhaps a book. I even have to apologize for the notation I use to describe the algorithm, which is barely adequate. But explaining the correct notation would take a fair amount of space as well. This comment really represents some notes that I wrote up as I implemented the code. If you are unfamiliar with wavelets I suggest that you look at the bearcave.com web pages and at the wavelet literature. I have yet to see a really good reference on wavelets for the software developer. The best book I can recommend is Ripples in Mathematics by Jensen and Cour-Harbo.

All wavelet algorithms have two components, a wavelet function and a scaling function. These are sometime also referred to as high pass and low pass filters respectively.

The wavelet function is passed two or more samples and calculates a wavelet coefficient. In the case of the Haar wavelet this is

```  coefi = oddi - eveni
or
coefi = 0.5 * (oddi - eveni)
```

depending on the version of the Haar algorithm used.

The scaling function produces a smoother version of the original data. In the case of the Haar wavelet algorithm this is an average of two adjacent elements.

The Daubechies D4 wavelet algorithm also has a wavelet and a scaling function. The coefficients for the scaling function are denoted as hi and the wavelet coefficients are gi.

Mathematicians like to talk about wavelets in terms of a wavelet algorithm applied to an infinite data set. In this case one step of the forward transform can be expressed as the infinite matrix of wavelet coefficients represented below multiplied by the infinite signal vector.

```     ai = ...h0,h1,h2,h3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ...   si
ci = ...g0,g1,g2,g3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ...   si+1
ai+1 = ...0, 0, h0,h1,h2,h3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ...   si+2
ci+1 = ...0, 0, g0,g1,g2,g3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ...   si+3
ai+2 = ...0, 0, 0, 0, h0,h1,h2,h3, 0, 0, 0, ...   si+4
ci+2 = ...0, 0, 0, 0, g0,g1,g2,g3, 0, 0, 0, ...   si+5
ai+3 = ...0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, h0,h1,h2,h3, 0, ...   si+6
ci+3 = ...0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, g0,g1,g2,g3, 0, ...   si+7
```

The dot product (inner product) of the infinite vector and a row of the matrix produces either a smoother version of the signal (ai) or a wavelet coefficient (ci).

In an ordered wavelet transform, the smoothed (ai) are stored in the first half of an n element array region. The wavelet coefficients (ci) are stored in the second half the n element region. The algorithm is recursive. The smoothed values become the input to the next step.

The transpose of the forward transform matrix above is used to calculate an inverse transform step. Here the dot product is formed from the result of the forward transform and an inverse transform matrix row.

```      si = ...h2,g2,h0,g0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ...  ai
si+1 = ...h3,g3,h1,g1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ...  ci
si+2 = ...0, 0, h2,g2,h0,g0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ...  ai+1
si+3 = ...0, 0, h3,g3,h1,g1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ...  ci+1
si+4 = ...0, 0, 0, 0, h2,g2,h0,g0, 0, 0, 0, ...  ai+2
si+5 = ...0, 0, 0, 0, h3,g3,h1,g1, 0, 0, 0, ...  ci+2
si+6 = ...0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, h2,g2,h0,g0, 0, ...  ai+3
si+7 = ...0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, h3,g3,h1,g1, 0, ...  ci+3
```

Using a standard dot product is grossly inefficient since most of the operands are zero. In practice the wavelet coefficient values are moved along the signal vector and a four element dot product is calculated. Expressed in terms of arrays, for the forward transform this would be:

```  ai = s[i]*h0 + s[i+1]*h1 + s[i+2]*h2 + s[i+3]*h3
ci = s[i]*g0 + s[i+1]*g1 + s[i+2]*g2 + s[i+3]*g3
```

This works fine if we have an infinite data set, since we don't have to worry about shifting the coefficients "off the end" of the signal.

I sometimes joke that I left my infinite data set in my other bear suit. The only problem with the algorithm described so far is that we don't have an infinite signal. The signal is finite. In fact not only must the signal be finite, but it must have a power of two number of elements.

If i=N-1, the i+2 and i+3 elements will be beyond the end of the array. There are a number of methods for handling the wavelet edge problem. This version of the algorithm acts like the data is periodic, where the data at the start of the signal wraps around to the end.

This algorithm uses a temporary array. A Lifting Scheme version of the Daubechies D4 algorithm does not require a temporary. The matrix discussion above is based on material from Ripples in Mathematics, by Jensen and Cour-Harbo. Any error are mine.

Author: Ian Kaplan
Use: You may use this software for any purpose as long as I cannot be held liable for the result. Please credit me with authorship if use use this source code.

This comment is formatted for the doxygen documentation generator

## Constructor & Destructor Documentation

 Daubechies::Daubechies ( )` [inline]`
 ```00215 { 00216 const double sqrt_3 = sqrt( 3 ); 00217 const double denom = 4 * sqrt( 2 ); 00218 00219 // 00220 // forward transform scaling (smoothing) coefficients 00221 // 00222 h0 = (1 + sqrt_3)/denom; 00223 h1 = (3 + sqrt_3)/denom; 00224 h2 = (3 - sqrt_3)/denom; 00225 h3 = (1 - sqrt_3)/denom; 00226 // 00227 // forward transform wavelet coefficients 00228 // 00229 g0 = h3; 00230 g1 = -h2; 00231 g2 = h1; 00232 g3 = -h0; 00233 00234 Ih0 = h2; 00235 Ih1 = g2; // h1 00236 Ih2 = h0; 00237 Ih3 = g0; // h3 00238 00239 Ig0 = h3; 00240 Ig1 = g3; // -h0 00241 Ig2 = h1; 00242 Ig3 = g1; // -h2 00243 } ```

## Member Function Documentation

 void Daubechies::daubTrans ( double * ts, int N )` [inline]`
 ```00246 { 00247 int n; 00248 for (n = N; n >= 4; n >>= 1) { 00249 transform( ts, n ); 00250 } 00251 } ```

 void Daubechies::invDaubTrans ( double * coef, int N )` [inline]`
 ```00255 { 00256 int n; 00257 for (n = 4; n <= N; n <<= 1) { 00258 invTransform( coef, n ); 00259 } 00260 } ```

 void Daubechies::invTransform ( double * a, const int n )` [inline, private]`
 Inverse Daubechies D4 transform. ```00188 { 00189 if (n >= 4) { 00190 int i, j; 00191 const int half = n >> 1; 00192 const int halfPls1 = half + 1; 00193 00194 double* tmp = new double[n]; 00195 00196 // last smooth val last coef. first smooth first coef 00197 tmp[0] = a[half-1]*Ih0 + a[n-1]*Ih1 + a[0]*Ih2 + a[half]*Ih3; 00198 tmp[1] = a[half-1]*Ig0 + a[n-1]*Ig1 + a[0]*Ig2 + a[half]*Ig3; 00199 for (i = 0, j = 2; i < half-1; i++) { 00200 // smooth val coef. val smooth val coef. val 00201 tmp[j++] = a[i]*Ih0 + a[i+half]*Ih1 + a[i+1]*Ih2 + a[i+halfPls1]*Ih3; 00202 tmp[j++] = a[i]*Ig0 + a[i+half]*Ig1 + a[i+1]*Ig2 + a[i+halfPls1]*Ig3; 00203 } 00204 for (i = 0; i < n; i++) { 00205 a[i] = tmp[i]; 00206 } 00207 delete [] tmp; 00208 } 00209 } ```

 void Daubechies::transform ( double * a, const int n )` [inline, private]`
 Forward Daubechies D4 transform. ```00162 { 00163 if (n >= 4) { 00164 int i, j; 00165 const int half = n >> 1; 00166 00167 double* tmp = new double[n]; 00168 00169 for (i = 0, j = 0; j < n-3; j += 2, i++) { 00170 tmp[i] = a[j]*h0 + a[j+1]*h1 + a[j+2]*h2 + a[j+3]*h3; 00171 tmp[i+half] = a[j]*g0 + a[j+1]*g1 + a[j+2]*g2 + a[j+3]*g3; 00172 } 00173 00174 tmp[i] = a[n-2]*h0 + a[n-1]*h1 + a[0]*h2 + a[1]*h3; 00175 tmp[i+half] = a[n-2]*g0 + a[n-1]*g1 + a[0]*g2 + a[1]*g3; 00176 00177 for (i = 0; i < n; i++) { 00178 a[i] = tmp[i]; 00179 } 00180 delete [] tmp; 00181 } 00182 } ```

## Member Data Documentation

 double Daubechies::Ig0` [private]`

 double Daubechies::Ig1` [private]`

 double Daubechies::Ig2` [private]`

 double Daubechies::Ig3` [private]`

 double Daubechies::Ih0` [private]`

 double Daubechies::Ih1` [private]`

 double Daubechies::Ih2` [private]`

 double Daubechies::Ih3` [private]`

 double Daubechies::g0` [private]`
 forward transform wave coefficients.

 double Daubechies::g1` [private]`
 forward transform wave coefficients.

 double Daubechies::g2` [private]`
 forward transform wave coefficients.

 double Daubechies::g3` [private]`
 forward transform wave coefficients.

 double Daubechies::h0` [private]`
 forward transform scaling coefficients.

 double Daubechies::h1` [private]`
 forward transform scaling coefficients.

 double Daubechies::h2` [private]`
 forward transform scaling coefficients.

 double Daubechies::h3` [private]`
 forward transform scaling coefficients.

The documentation for this class was generated from the following file:
Generated at Wed Jan 23 20:56:40 2002 for Daubechies D4 Wavelet Transform by 1.2.8.1 written by Dimitri van Heesch, © 1997-2001